Tap Water Problems Found To Be More Prevalent In Poor, Minority Communities

by Sara Jerome

Tap water problems and shoddy water infrastructure are rampant in poor African-American communities, according to a report published by the Center for Public Integrity.

Campti, LA, is one example.

“Like many poor African-American communities, Campti’s poverty is a significant impediment to making crucial improvements to the town’s infrastructure — including its old water system,” the report said.

More than half of Campti’s population lives in poverty, and the median income is under $16,000 the report said.

Lifelong resident Leroy Hayes said the water often smells like bleach or takes on a brown hue.

“The water system in Campti is more than 50 years old, according to an audit from the Louisiana legislative auditor. Near the end of 2016, the water tank sprang several holes, some of which were temporarily plugged with sticks. A new tank was built in March, but residents still don’t trust that the water is safe,” the report said.

Former Campti Mayor Judy Daniels explained that local water problems “get worse after a storm or power outage because the water pump does not have a backup generator,” the report paraphrased.

Uniontown, AL, is another example.

“Black residents blame a swell of gastrointestinal complications on the waste from a nearby catfish farm they say pollutes their drinking water. In parts of North Carolina, impoverished African-Americans sometimes rely on contaminated wells for drinking water — though public water systems run just a few feet from their homes,” the report said.

Jacqueline Patterson, the director of the NAACP Environmental and Climate Justice Program, said communities of color are “disproportionately affected by polluting industries because they are more likely to be located near low-income neighborhoods.”

The recent report by News21 noted that water violations occur at systems in every part of the country. But there are clean patterns governing which areas are hardest hit, the report said.

“Drinking water quality is often dependent on the wealth and racial makeup of communities, according to News21’s analysis. Small, poor communities and neglected urban areas are sometimes left to fend for themselves with little help from state and federal governments,” the report said.

Manuel Teodoro, a researcher at Texas A&M University, cited a “bias” when it comes to water safety.

“These are not isolated incidences, the Flints of the world or the Corpus Christis or the East Chicagos,” Teodoro said. “These incidents are getting media attention in a way that they didn’t a few years ago, but the patterns that we see in the data suggest that problems with drinking water quality are not just randomly distributed in the population — that there is a systemic bias out there.”

The crisis in Flint, MI, helped highlight the problem of lead contamination. Mother Jones reported that the problem is a particular threat to minority communities.

“Economically and politically vulnerable black and Hispanic children, many of whom inhabit dilapidated older housing, still suffer disproportionately from the devastating effects of the toxin. This is the meaning of institutional racism in action today,” the report said.

Source: WaterOnline.

Pure Water Gazette Fair Use Statement

Carbon Filters Galore

We just counted.  In the “Cartridge Menu” at purewaterproducts.com there are more than fifty separate carbon filter cartridges, and that’s just in the four standard sizes.  These range from carbon blocks to granular carbons, many with specialty additives like calcite and KDF.  There are coconut shell carbons, bituminous carbons, and lignite carbons; there are carbon filters enhanced to remove lead and cysts, to prevent scale buildup, to inhibit bacterial growth, to remove fluoride, to reduce tannins, to raise pH. There are carbon filters that target VOCs and others that offer fantastically long and effective chlorine reduction.

In addition, there are “proprietary” carbon filters for a number of brands (Microline, Hydrotech, or example), inline carbons (from Pentair and Omnipure), aftermarket knock-offs (Multipure), and several ceramic candles with carbon cores.

Filter carbon is the central core of most modern water filtration systems. For some 90% of the water contaminants monitored by the EPA, carbon filtration is the preferred treatment. We hope you’ll look over our carbon collection. Our “Cartridge Menu” offers extensive information on all the carbon filters that we sell, including pictures, performance summaries, and links to manufacturers’ brochures.



We’ve established a new archiving system for old Pure Water Occasional issues.  Email issues going back to mid-2006 now link from the Pure Water Gazette site. They’re listed chronologically. We haven’t counted them, but there are a bunch.

Pure Water Occasional email newsletters: 2006 to present.

The Occasional is the offspring of the original Pure Water Gazette  which began as a mail-out paper newsletter in 1986. The paper Gazette issues were discontinued in 1997, morphed into an online publication which started emailing as the Occasional sometime in the early 2000s. It has existed since then as an online publication with “occasional” email issues.

Below is a list of partially indexed back Occasionals that may also be of interest.  These are archived on the Pure Water Occasional website:

Special Product-Specific Issues, 2010 to 2013

November 15, 2010. Undersink Water Filters.

December 15, 2010. Cartridge-Style Whole House Filters.

January 15, 2011. Multi-Pure Solid Carbon Block Filters.

February 15, 2011. Water Treatment with Aeration.

March 15, 2011. Pure Water Annie’s Concise Guide to Pumps.

April 15, 2011. Garden Hose Filters.

May 15, 2011. Water Filters for Emergencies.

June 15, 2011. Backwashing Water Filters.

July 15, 2011. Countertop Reverse Osmosis.

August 15, 2011. Whole House Reverse Osmosis.

September 15, 2011. Sediment Filters.

October 15, 2011. Tank-Style City Water Filters.

November 15, 2011. The Amazing Permeate Pump.

December 15, 2011. Template Assisted Crystallization (TAC).

January 15, 2012. Electro-Adhesion Filtration Technology: NanoCeram Filters.

February 15, 2012. Information About Information: How To Find Things on Our Websites.

March 15, 2012. Water Filter Cartridges. Featuring Our Recent Cartridge Page Revision.

April 15, 2012. Undersink Installation in Tight Places. Low Water Backwashing Filter.

May 15, 2012. Chloramines: Myth and Reality.

June 15, 2012. Whole House RO. San Angelo Water Treatment Dilemma.

July 15, 2012. Water Testing. Sand Trap.

August 15, 2012. Our New Water Test Page. Taking Care of A Water Well.

September 15, 2012. Ultrafiltration. Birthday of the EPA and Model 77.

October 15, 2012. Installing Undersink Filters and Reverse Osmosis Units.

November 15, 2012. Water Softeners and TAC units.

December 15, 2012. Twin Tank Water Softeners.

January 15, 2013. Standard-Sized Filter Cartridges.

February 15, 2013. Chemical Feed Pumps.

March 15, 2013. Countertop Reverse Osmosis.

General Issues, 2009 to 2013


September 2009. “Meshes and Microns: The Measurements of Water Treatment,” by Gene Franks. “Numerical water facts from B. Bee Sharper.”

October 2009. “Providing Water for Emergencies.” by Gene Franks. “Humming is Good for You,” by Hardly Waite.

November 2009. “How Much Water Should You Drink?” by Dr. Mauro Di Pascuale. “Numerical Facts about Animal Manure,” by B. Bee Sharper.

December 2009. “The New York Times Great Water Article,” by Hardly Waite. “Numerical Facts,” by B Bea Sharper.

January 2010. “What Carbon Does and What It Doesn’t,” by Gene Franks. “Numerical Facts,” by Bee B. Sharper. “Acidic Water.”

February 2010. “Fluoridation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, Part I,” by C. F. “Chubb” Michaud.

March 2010. “Fluoridation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, Part II,” by C. F. “Chubb” Michaud.

April 2010. NSF/ANSI. What Is It All About? by Gene Franks. Dr. Douglas on bath pharmaceuticals. B. B. Sharper. Radium.

May 2010. “The Ceiling is Up and the Floor is Down: The Alamo Engineering Handbook,” by Gene Franks. Steve Maxwell on “Why Water Should Cost More.” Iron.

June 2010. “All About Water Softeners,” Occasional Staff Article. “Gulf Oil Spill: A Hole in the World,” by Naomi Klein (Guardian). B. Bee Sharper, “On Prescription Drugs.” Hardness.

July 2010. “Raising the pH of Acidic Waters,” by Pure Water Annie. “Arsenic,” with a long cut from National Geographic News, New Products from Pure Water Products.

August 2010. “Winterize Your Lawn,” Model 77’s 21’s Birthday, Pure Water Annie on Servicing Model 77, MTBE.

September 2010. “Getting a Perspective on Water Use,” by Gene Franks. The Permeate Pump and How to Add a Permeate Pump to Your RO Unit. “Nickel.” B. B. Sharper on Groundwater Usage.

October 2010. “Air and Carbon,” by Gene Franks. Pure Water Annie on Airgap Faucet Installation. New EPA rule on dental mercury. “Chloride.” The Dead Sea. B. Bea Sharper on Billions.

November 2010. “How to Fix Leaks in Quick Connect Fittings,” by Pure Water Annie. “A Simmering Water War,” by Jim Hightower, “Is Your Faucet Making you Sick?” by Doug Linney, B. Bea Sharper on Water, “Radium and Uranium,” and Lead (contaminant of the month).

December 2010. “Probable carcinogen hexavalent chromium found in drinking water in 31 U. S. Cities,” by Lyndsey Layton. “Most of the time no one is watching most of the water for most of the contaminants, “by Hardly Waite. “How to remove Hexvalent Chromium,” and “How Static Mixers Work,” by Pure Water Annie.

January 2011. How Much Sodium Does a Softener Add to Water?, Water Treatment for Rainwater, Fluoride Allowable in City Water Lowered, UnTruth in Advertising, Pure Water Annie’s Whole House Filter Sizing Chart.

February 2011. More about Hexavalent Chromium, Ten Things You Should Know About Water, “What Carbon Does, What Carbon Doesn’t,” by Gene Franks, The Ups and Downs of Filter Cartridges (Which End Goes Up), by Pure Water Annie. B. Bea Sharper on Dams and other issues.

March 2011. Hardly Waite on National Water Security Rankings, Pure Water Annie on Finding Parts for Your Water Filter, and Introducing the Emily Reverse Osmosis Unit.

April 2011. Rain Barrels, Plastics, Introducing The Eliminator, A New Website Address. “In Praise of Tap Water.”

May 2011. UV 101 by Gene Franks, Rain Gardens, Water Content of Trees, Fiberglass Mineral Tanks.

June 2011. Sizing Water Softeners by Pure Water Annie, Meshes and Microns by Gene Franks, Swimming Pool Leaks, Saving A Cell Phone from Water.

July 2011. Sizing Water Softeners Part 2, by Pure Water Annie. Dr. Mercola on Nitrosamines, Choramine, and Shampoo Ingredients. B. B. Sharper.

August 2011. The Best Water for Coffee and Tea. Multiple Filter Designs. Tiger Tom Explains How UV Works.

September 2011. The Power and Water Nexus. Pure Water Annie explains “The Peroxide Number.”

October 2011, Pure Water Annie’s Glossary of Water Treatment Abbreviations, Chloramines and Fish, The EPA, Water and Coal.

November 2011. Pure Water Annie on Pipe Threads. Gene Franks and Hardly Waite on Christmas Gifts. The Origins of Fluoride.

December 2011. Pure Water Annie on Well Pumps. Top Water News Stories of the Year.

January 2012, Pure Water Annie on Chlorine. Arsenic. Texas Drought. Texas Water.

February 2012. Pure Water Annie on Benzene. Lake Vostok. Banning Bottled Water.

March 2012. Pure Water Annie on Copepods. B. Bea Sharper on plastic bags. Fluoride in Food.

April 2012. Pure Water Annie on Booster Pumps. B. Bea Sharper on dog manure. USA Today on Dog Excrement. New Easiest Ever Filter. Arsenic.

May 2012. Pure Water Annie on Treating Water with Sodis and Salt, Hardly Waite on “fracking” and water treatment profits, B. B. Sharper on Animal Manure.

June 2012. Pure Water Annie on In/Out Filters. New “Sand Trap.”

July 2012. Pure Water Annie Explains How Undersink Reverse Osmosis Works. The Economy RO Unit.

August 2012. Chlorine, Cholesterol, and Chickens.

September 2012. Reverse Osmosis and Refrigerators. The New Contaminant Index. Meat and Water Consumption. B. Bea Sharper.

October 2012. Bypass Valves, Watts UV, New Green Filters, Decaffeination.

November 2012. Septic Tanks, Whole House Filters, Calcium Scaling, How Softeners Work.

December 2012. Mercury in Tuna, Rainwater Runoff (Ocean Pollution), How To Sanitize An RO Tank, Winter Swimming, B. Sharper.

January 2013. Green Water Management. Pure Water Annie on Microbe Control. Camp Lejeune’s Shameful Water Scandal.

February 2013. Hardness, Pharmaceuticals and Fish, Pure Water Annie on “Pressure, Flow Rate, and Delta P.”

March 2013. Alum, Sinkholes, pH, Multi-Pure.




Dams, reservoirs, canals and safe drinking water matter for absolutely everyone

By Sean W. Fleming

Gazette’s Introductory Note: We strongly support President Trump’s frequently stated plan to spend heavily on national infrastructure. Nothing could be more important, and such a project is long overdue. We’re way behind on fixing bridges, pipes,  and drainage networks. There are estimated to be over 55,000 US bridges that are badly in need of repair or replacement. We hope that these items can take precedence over walls and jails. The Scientific American article that follows suggests some directions that the president’s plan could take.

Cars are seen in the water as a span of highway bridge sits in the Skagit River May 24, 2013 after collapsing near the town of Mt Vernon, Washington late Thursday. REUTERS/Cliff DesPeaux

What implications will Trump administration policies have for America’s rivers?

When I was first asked this, I felt like a school kid caught daydreaming in class by the teacher. It was during the Q&A following a public talk I’d given at the Smithsonian a few months ago on the science of rivers, and I didn’t have a ready answer. I’m a science geek, not a policy wonk. The talk had been about things like why rivers run where they do, how the same river can experience drought one year and spill its banks the next, and how the amazing universality of mathematics leads to the same equations being used for operational flood forecasting and Wall Street derivative pricing models.

I also felt wary about speaking to political issues on behalf of all science, especially at a time when folks are unusually polarized, sensitive, and ornery; the credibility and influence that science holds with leaders and the public relies on scientists being seen as neutral third-party technical experts. But then again, water resource science isn’t quantum loop gravity. We’re practical people engaged in a practical science, and it’s not like my colleagues and I never contemplated the intersection between hydrologic science and society.

So I offered the audience this fundamental, if vague, response: if we want to maintain forward momentum irrespective of whichever party wins any given election, it’s important we build a wide base of support by rejecting the increasingly common—and false—notion that there can only be two ways of viewing the world, one which is protective of water, rivers, and the environment, and the other not.

I also posited that this should not be too hard to accomplish, because while there are different ideas on how to best manage water, just about everyone agrees it’s important, regardless of whether you live in the city or the country, on the coasts or in the interior of the continent, in a blue state or a red state.

But if I was asked that question again today, I’d add this key corollary: the Trump administration;s drive to renew America’s infrastructure offers powerful, if perhaps unexpected, synergies with pushing water resource science forward. At first glance, infrastructure renewal may seem less about science and more about the tough but wise decision to allocate funds for long-term investments that in most years don’t seem like an immediate priority. But if we’re going to repair America’s increasingly rickety water infrastructure, let’s do it right, making focused investments in the applied scientific R&D needed to ensure a new generation of infrastructure is designed to support the needs of the American people and the American economy for another hundred years.

Rivers and their infrastructure, like dams, reservoirs, and canals, matter for absolutely everyone. Examples range from the obvious to the surprising. Rivers deliver drinking water, irrigation water for growing food and brewing beer, and the large amounts of water required for industrial processes ranging from building cars to building computers. Rivers drive hydroelectric turbines, keeping the lights on and the economy in motion. Flood control infrastructure keeps us safe, and healthy rivers generate recreational, tourism, and fisheries dollars.

Rivers provided the transportation pathways by which early America was explored and through which it developed its own unique culture: think of the Lewis and Clark expedition, Mississippi gambling steamboats, and Huckleberry Finn. Even victory in WWII and the ensuing Cold War owed much to river infrastructure: aluminum used to build fighting aircraft, and uranium and plutonium in the first atomic bombs at White Sands and over Imperial Japan and subsequently in the growing US nuclear arsenal, were produced using copious hydroelectric power generated by Columbia River dams in the west and the Tennessee Valley Authority in the east. Harnessing and effectively managing water has been, and will continue to be, central to the economy, defense, and psyche of America.

While tremendous technical prowess and monetary investments went into our current water systems when they were first built–think of marvels like the Hoover Dam–today, much of our water infrastructure is old and either failing or otherwise not performing at the level America requires in the 21st century. The Oroville Dam incident and associated evacuation last winter is a potent reminder. There are many other examples: silting up and end-of-design-life for many dams nationwide; difficulties with fish passage and aquatic habitat, with implications to ecological health and therefore recreation, tourism, and commercial fisheries dollars; the ongoing saga of flooding in New Orleans, tied in part to Mississippi flows and the sometimes controversial control structures on it; and above all, the insufficient capacity to match the water and power needs of growing populations and economies, especially in the west. Cleary, renewing America’s rivers is a fantastic direction for the infrastructure investments President Trump wants to make.

To do this right, we need not only concrete and pipe but also a focused, goal-oriented investment in developing the science and engineering knowledge needed to ensure these rejuvenated systems do their job effectively and safely for a long time to come. We need to better understand both the natural and human-induced hydroclimatic variability of river systems so that infrastructure and associated decision support systems can be designed to better handle both flood and drought. We need to develop and test new principles for water infrastructure and river management that return the natural ecological functioning so important for tourism, fishing, and other industries. We need to discover new approaches that minimize the future maintenance budgets required for that infrastructure, and to invest in technologies that contribute to water conservation, ranging from fixing and updating leaky water distribution lines to promoting water-efficient manufacturing and agricultural processes.

We must enhance flood and water supply forecasting systems to further improve the efficiency of reservoir planning and management. Diversify the water portfolio; innovative work with desalinization plants and groundwater production from brine aquifers in California and Texas may provide an example. Ensure that every city in America has the infrastructure it needs to provide its citizens with a clean and safe drinking water supply; don’t let Flint happen again. And following the established pattern of history-making federal government-led successes, from the Apollo program to winning the Cold War, spread these investments in innovation across organizations and sectors, including academia, government, NGOs, and the private sector.

So, what will be the implications of the new administration for America’s rivers? That depends. If President Trump plays his cards right with his planned infrastructure investments, he could leave a tremendously positive long-term legacy around rivers, science and the economy.

Source: Scientific American.

Water Used in Food Production

Posted August 29th, 2017

How Much Water Is Really Used In Food And Beverage Production?

People concerned about their water footprint often make an effort to turn the faucet off quickly, take shorter showers, and cut back on watering the lawn.

While these efforts are important, they ignore one of the biggest water-use culprits found in virtually every household: food and beverages.

The production of food and beverages is a water-intensive process. According to the Water Footprint Network, a single apple requires an average of 33 gallons of water to grow. Here’s what other common food and beverage products cost in terms of water consumption according to the Water Footprint Network.

Beef: Beef is one of the biggest water-use culprits in the food industry, and is one of largest amongst meat products, utilizing an average of 1,845 gallons of water per pound of beef produced. Ninety-nine percent of the water used is for animal feed, with the remaining 1 percent coming from drinking and service water.

Coffee: Another big hitter for water use in the food and beverage industry is coffee.

To create one pound of coffee beans it requires 2,264 gallons of water. This means that the average cup of coffee, using .24 ounces of coffee beans, requires 34 gallons of water to produce.

Pork: The production of meat from pigs uses a global average of 717 gallons of water per pound. From 1996 to 2005 the global water footprint for pigs accounted for 19 percent of the total water footprint of animal production in the world.

Wine & Beer: To produce one gallon of wine requires 870 gallons of water. When looking at this fact from a standard serving size perspective, 34 gallons of water are needed for 5 fluid ounces of wine.  In France, Italy, and Spain, the largest wine producing countries in the world, the average water footprint of wine is 24, 24, and 52 gallons per glass of wine, respectively.

However when beer production uses 296 gallons of water per gallon of beer, requiring an average of 28 gallons of water for 12 fluid ounces of beer.

Bread: Bread created from wheat flour has a global average footprint of 218 gallons of water per pound. Most of that water use, about 80 percent, is due to the flour that is derived from the wheat, so the exact water footprint of bread depends on the origin of the wheat and how it was grown. From 1996 to 2005, global wheat production contributed 15 percent to the total water footprint of crop production in the world.

Citrus and Stone Fruits: On average the global water footprint per pound are as follows: 67 gal./lb for oranges, 61 gal./lb for grapefruit, and 77 gal./lb for lemons.  A single orange requires approximately 21 gallons of water to produce. Orange juice comes at a higher water cost, utilizing 122 gallons of water to produce one gallon of orange juice.
Plums require 261 gal./lb, apricots 154 gal./lb. and peaches 109 gal./lb. Apples, bananas, grapes, and kiwis all take less than 100 gal./lb. Strawberries, pineapple, and watermelon require less than 50 gallons of water per pound of fruit.

Potato: The global average water footprint of a potato is 34 gallons per pound. China, the largest potato producing country in the world, contributed 22 percent to the total water footprint of potato production in the world.

Source: KLa Systems

Pure Water Gazette Fair Use Statement


Archive of Pure Water Occasional Email Newsletter Issues

  From June 2006 to Present




Issue Date
Pure Water Occasional, August 16, 2017 Aug 16, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, July 31, 2017 Jul 31, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, July 7, 2017 Jul 7, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, June 10, 2017 Jun 10, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, May 20, 2017 May 20, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, April 28, 2017 Apr 28, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, April 14, 2017 Apr 14, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, March 14, 2017. Mar 14, 2017
Pure Water Occasional. February 14, 2017 Feb 14, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, January 29, 2017 Jan 29, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, January 2, 2017 Jan 2, 2017
Pure Water Occasional, December 12, 2016 Dec 12, 2016
Pure Water Occasional November 27, 2016 Nov 27, 2016
Pure Water Occasinal, October 31, 2016 Oct 31, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, September 30, 2016 Oct 3, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, August 31, 2016 Aug 31, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, July 31, 2016 Jul 31, 2016
Pure Water Occasional. June 20, 2016 Jun 20, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, May 31, 2016 May 31, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, April 30, 2016 Apr 30, 2016
Pure Water Occasional, March 28, 2016 Mar 30, 2016
The Pure Water Occasional. February 23, 2016. Feb 23, 2016
Pure Water Occasional. January 25, 2015 Jan 25, 2016
Pure Water Occasional. December 21, 2015 Dec 22, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. November 30, 2015 Nov 30, 2015
Pure Water Occasional, Oct. 31, 2015 Nov 1, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. October 6, 2015 Oct 6, 2015
Pure Water Occasional, September 9, 2015 Sep 9, 2015
Pure Water Occasional, August 24, 2015 Aug 24, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. August 3, 2015 Aug 3, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. July 15, 2015 Jul 15, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. June 15, 2015 Jun 15, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. May 31, 2015 May 31, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. April 30. 2015 Apr 30, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. March 19, 2015 Mar 19, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. March 2, 2015 Mar 2, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. February 23, 2015 Feb 23, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. February 16,2015 Feb 16, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. February 9, 2015 Feb 9, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. February 2, 2015 Feb 2, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. January 26, 2015 Jan 26, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. January 19, 2015. Jan 19, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. January 12, 2015 Jan 12, 2015
Pure Water Occasional — January 5, 2014 Jan 5, 2015
Pure Water Occasional. December 29, 2014 Dec 29, 2014
Pure Water Gazette. December 22, 2014 Dec 22, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. December 15, 2014 Dec 15, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. December 8, 2014 Dec 8, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. December 1, 2014 Dec 1, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. November 24, 2014 Nov 24, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. November 17, 2014 Nov 17, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. November 10, 2014 Nov 10, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. November 3, 2014 Nov 3, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. October 27, 2014 Oct 27, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. October 20, 2014 Oct 20, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. October 13, 2014 Oct 13, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional. October 6, 2014 Oct 6, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, September 29, 2014 Sep 29, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. September 22, 2014 Sep 22, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. September 15, 2014 Sep 15, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. September 8, 2014 Sep 8, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. September 1, 2014 Sep 1, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, August 25, 2014 Aug 25, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional. August 18, 2014. Aug 18, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. August 11, 2014 Aug 11, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. August 4, 2014 Aug 4, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. July 28, 2014 Jul 28, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. July 21, 2014 Jul 21, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. July 14, 2014 Jul 14, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. July 7, 2014 Jul 7, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. June 30, 2014 Jun 30, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. June 23, 2014 Jun 23, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. June 16, 2014. Jun 16, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. June 9, 2014 Jun 9, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional. June 2, 2014 Jun 2, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. May 26, 2014 May 26, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. May 19, 2014 May 19, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. May 12, 2014 May 12, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, May 5, 2014 May 5, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. April 28, 2014 Apr 28, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. April 21, 2014 Apr 21, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. April 14, 2014 Apr 14, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. April 7, 2014 Apr 7, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. March 31, 2014 Mar 31, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional, March 24, 2014 Mar 24, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, March 17, 2014 Mar 17, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. March 10, 2014 Mar 10, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional, March 3, 2014 Mar 3, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, February 24, 2014 Feb 25, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, February 17, 2014 Feb 17, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, February 10, 2014 Feb 10, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, February 3, 2014 Feb 3, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, January 27, 2014 Jan 27, 2014
Pure Water Occasional, January 20, 2014 Jan 20, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. January 13, 2014 Jan 13, 2014
The Pure Water Occasional. January 6, 2014 Jan 6, 2014
Pure Water Occasional. December 30, 2013 Dec 30, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. December 23, 2013. Dec 23, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, December 16, 2013 Dec 16, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. December 9, 2013 Dec 9, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. December 2, 2013 Dec 2, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. November 25, 2013 Nov 25, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, November 18, 1013 Nov 18, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. November 11, 2013. Nov 11, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. November 5, 2013. Nov 4, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, October 28, 2013 Oct 28, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, October 21, 2013 Oct 21, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, October 14, 2013 Oct 14, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. October 7, 2013 Oct 7, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. September 30, 2013. Sep 30, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, September 23, 2013 Sep 23, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, September 16, 2013 Sep 16, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, September 9, 2013 Sep 9, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, September 2, 2013 Sep 2, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, August 26, 2013 Aug 26, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, July 19, 2013 Aug 19, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, August 12, 2013 Aug 12, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, August 5, 2013 Aug 5, 2013
Pure Water Occasional. July 29, 2013 Jul 29, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, July 22, 2013 Jul 22, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, July 15, 2013 Jul 15, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, July 8, 2013 Jul 8, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, July 1, 2013 Jul 1, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, June 24, 2014 Jun 24, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, June 17, 2013 Jun 17, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, June 10, 2013 Jun 10, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, June 3, 2013 Jun 3, 2013
Pure Water Occasional Memorial Day 2013 Issue May 27, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, May 20, 2013 May 20, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, May 13, 2013 May 13, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, May 6, 2013 May 6, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, April 29, 2013 Apr 29, 2013
Pure Water Occasional Mid-April Issue Apr 15, 2013
Pure Water Occasional March 2013 Issue Mar 31, 2013
Pure Water Occasional Mid-March Issue Mar 15, 2013
Pure Water Occasional February 2013 Feb 28, 2013
Pure Water Occasional Mid-February Issue Feb 15, 2013
Pure Water Occasional January 2013 Issue Jan 31, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, January 2013 Jan 15, 2013
Pure Water Occasional, December 2012 Dec 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-December Issue Dec 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional, November 2012 Nov 30, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-November Issue Nov 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional, October 2012 Oct 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-October Issue Oct 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional, September 2012 Sep 30, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-September Issue Sep 16, 2012
Pure Water Occasional August 2012 Aug 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-August Issue Aug 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-July Issue Jul 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional June 2012 Issue Jun 30, 2012
Pure Water Occasional-Mid-June Issue Jun 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional May Issue May 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-May Issue May 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional April Issue Apr 30, 2012
Pure Water Occasional Mid-April Issue Apr 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional for March 2012 Mar 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional, Mid-March Issue Mar 16, 2012
Pure Water Occasional, February 2012 Feb 29, 2012
Pure Water Occasional–Mid-February Issue Feb 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional January 2012 Jan 31, 2012
Pure Water Occasional – Mid-January Issue Jan 15, 2012
Pure Water Occasional December Issue Dec 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional – Mid-December Issue Dec 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional November Issue Nov 30, 2011
Pure Water Occasional, Mid-November Issue Nov 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional October Issue Oct 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional, Mid-October Issue Oct 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional September Issue Sep 30, 2011
Pure Water Occasional. Mid-September Special Issue. Sep 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional, August 2011 Aug 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-August Issue Aug 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional for July 2011 Jul 31, 2011
Pure Water Occsional Mid-July Issue Jul 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional for June 2011 Jun 30, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-June Issue Jun 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional for May 2011 May 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-May Issue May 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional for April, 2011 Apr 30, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-April Issue Apr 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional, March 2011 Mar 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-March Supplement Mar 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional – February 2011 Feb 28, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-Month Issue Feb 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional, January 2011 Jan 31, 2011
Pure Water Occasional Mid-January Supplement Jan 15, 2011
Pure Water Occasional–December 2010 Dec 31, 2010
Pure Water Occasional Mid-Month Product Issue Dec 15, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, November 2010 Nov 30, 2010
Special Mid-Month Product Issue of the Pure Water Occasional Nov 15, 2010
Pure Water Occasional for October 2010 Oct 31, 2010
The Pure Water Occasional, September 2010 Sep 30, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, August 2010 Aug 31, 2010
The Pure Water Occasional for July 2010 Jul 31, 2010
Pure Water Occasional June 2010 Jun 30, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, May 2010 May 31, 2010
Pure Water Occasional April 2010. Apr 30, 2010
Pure Water Occasional. March 2010. Mar 31, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, February 2010 Feb 28, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, January 2010 Issue Jan 31, 2010
Pure Water Occasional, December 2009 Issue Dec 31, 2009
The Pure Water Occasional, Nov. 2009 Nov 30, 2009
The Pure Water Occasional for October 2009 Nov 2, 2009
The Pure Water Occasional Sep 16, 2009
Making Water Green Jul 20, 2009
Pure Water Occasional – Water & Water Articles Sep 11, 2008
Water Softeners and “Water Softeners” Apr 24, 2008
The Pure Water Occasional — Issue 03 Sep 13, 2006
The Pure Water Occasional — Issue 02 Jun 23, 2006


 Maintaining the Quartz Sleeve



 Certified Viqua Installer Mike aims a disapproving eye at a customer’s quartz sleeve during a service call in Flower Mound, TX

An essential part of any ultraviolet water purification system is a clear tube that looks like glass but is really made of quartz. It forms a barrier between the UV lamp and the water being treated. The tube is called a quartz sleeve. The UV lamp is housed inside the sleeve and the water is on the outside, so the lamp’s UV dosage that actually gets to the water depends on how clean and clear the quartz sleeve is.

Ultraviolet units are normally preceded by a five micron sediment filter to assure that the water being treated does not contain particles large enough to provide shade that would protect microbes from the germicidal lamp. The filter, however, does not remove minerals in the water that can form scale on the outside of the very hot quartz sleeve. The most common scaling agents are hardness (calcium and magnesium) and iron.

Regular maintenance of a UV system includes examining, cleaning, and, if necessary, replacing the quartz sleeve to assure maximal UV transmittance. Recommended cleaning is with a clean, lint-free cloth soaked in vinegar or another mild acid. It is also highly recommended that you handle with care, don’t leave finger prints, and don’t break the sleeve. Especially don’t break it.

 quartzsleevewithmike2The sleeve cleaned up nicely with white vinegar and some scrubbing.  Mike is happy. 

Manufacturers’ quartz sleeve recommendations vary, some recommending sleeve change with every second lamp change even if the sleeve appears clear to the eye. This is because UV light can degrade the quartz and block efficient UV transmittance even if the sleeve appears to be crystal clear.

Hydrogen Sulfide

The “rotten egg” odor that people complain about in well water can come from many sources, but it is most commonly caused by  “sulfur reducing” bacteria that give off a foul-smelling gas. The bacteria themselves are harmless–they don’t cause disease–but the gas they produce can cause horrible odors and smelly black staining in pipes and appliances.


In some parts of the country, most notably Florida, where hydrogen sulfide is common and very severe, the standard treatment is to spray the water into an open air tank, allow the noxious gas to escape into the atmosphere, then use a secondary pump to send the water from the tank into the home. Tanks of this type are expensive, need lots of space, and are subject to freezing in cooler climates. Therefore, another type of treatment known as “precipitation/filtration” is preferred in most areas.


With this method, an “oxidizer” causes the trapped hydrogen sulfide gas to “precipitate” to elemental sulfur, then the sulfur is trapped in a filter. It’s a two-step process. The filter is most often carbon.  Filter carbon, especially a specialty carbon called “catalytic carbon,” can perform both steps–precipitation and filtration–but unless the amount of  H2S (hydrogen sulfide) is small, the carbon wears out quickly and has to be replaced. However, when the carbon is helped by a more powerful “oxidizer,” the carbon can last a very long time and the process can be very successful. Many “oxidizers” can cause the precipitation of the gas: air, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, ozone, and more. For residential users, the most practical and the most easily maintained are aeration (air) and chlorination.


A full treatment system with chlorine looks like this–


1. A dry pellet chlorinator — a device that drops chlorine pellets into the well itself– followed by a carbon filter, or


2. A chemical feed pump, installed before the pressure tank, that feeds liquid chlorine (household bleach) into the water line.  After the pressure tank, you must have a retention tank–usually 80 to 120 gallons–to give the chlorine time to work.  After the retention tank, a carbon filter.


A full treatment system with aeration looks like this —


1. An “Aer-Max” system, which consists of a 10″ X 54″ treatment tank that is fed by a small air compressor.  It is installed after the pressure tank, and it is followed by a carbon filter, or


2. A “single tank aerator” installed after the pressure tank. It is a backwashing filter with a special control valve that draws in air to “oxidize” the H2S so that it can be removed by the filter carbon in the bottom 2/3 of the tank.


Here are page links that show the various strategies. Many have installation diagrams.


Dry Pellet Chlorinator — http://www.purewaterproducts.com/dry-pellet-chlorinator


Chemical Feed Pump and accessories — http://www.purewaterproducts.com/chemical-feed-pumps


“Aer-Max” units.– http://www.purewaterproducts.com/aer-max-aeration-systems


Single Tank Aerators — https://www.purewaterproducts.com/single-tank-aerator


The carbon filter used in any of these system (other than the single tank aerator) can be either a “backwashing” tank-style filter or a carbon block filter.  If iron is present in the water, a backwashing filter must be used because a carbon block filter would be clogged quickly with iron.


Catalytic carbon is the carbon of choice with hydrogen sulfide, but any good carbon filter will work after proper oxidation.


Here are some places on our website to look for carbon filters —


5600 10 X 54 filters — https://www.purewaterproducts.com/fleck-5600-backwashing-filters


Filters to follow Aer-Max — https://www.purewaterproducts.com/filters-to-follow-aer-max


Carbon block filters — https://www.purewaterproducts.com/whole-house-filters-compact


Often the hard part of designing these filters is choosing and sizing the carbon filters.  Do not hesitate to call or email us for help.


Poison once flowed in America’s waters. With Trump, it might again

As a scientist working for decades on national and global water and climate challenges, I must speak out against what I see as an assault on America’s water resources.

I grew up in New York in the 1960s hearing about massive Polychlorinated Biphenyl – a toxic chemical used as a coolant – contamination in the Hudson River and the threatened extinction of bald eagles and ospreys from eating contaminated fish.

I remember watching on television Ohio’s Cuyahoga River burning. I remember scientists warning about the death of the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay from uncontrolled industrial pollution. I remember not being able to swim at beaches polluted with raw sewage.

And I remember the public debate and bipartisan enthusiasm for federal action to clean up our waters – enthusiasm that led to passage of one of the nation’s foundational environmental laws, the Clean Water Act, signed into law by Richard Nixon in 1972.

This law and the related federal regulations reduced water pollution and protected some of the nation’s rivers and lakes, but they are incomplete, only partially implemented, and increasingly outdated in the face of new threats from unregulated contaminants, worsening climatic changes, failing water infrastructure and direct political assault.

Donald Trump claimed he’d work to promote clean water. This claim has proven to be hollow. Since taking office, the president, administration officials, and the Republican-led Congress have moved aggressively to roll back decades of water-quality protections put in place by previous Republican and Democratic administrations.

These moves benefit industrial polluters rather than local communities, hinder progress toward cleaning up contaminated water and deteriorating ecosystems and worsen public health risks.

To address these problems, the Obama administration developed new rules to remove mercury from municipal sewage; impose limits on the amount of toxic and bioaccumulative water pollutants such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium that can be released from power plants; control previously unregulated pesticides; stop the dumping of coal wastes into streams and clarified authority for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Army Corps of Engineers to extend protections to around 60% of the water bodies in the United States – the so-called Waters of the United States, or WOTUS, rule, also known as the Clean Water Rule.

The Trump administration and Congress have moved to rescind every one of these environmental protections.

Immediately after Trump’s inauguration, the EPA announced the agency’s intention to cancel the new regulation to cut mercury pollution in urban wastewater.

Mercury is a persistent neurotoxin affecting the brain and nervous system and scientists estimate that more than 75,000 infants in the US each year have an increased risk of learning disabilities associated with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. The largest single source of mercury contamination in urban wastewater comes from dental offices and the new rule required dental offices to install inexpensive and effective equipment to capture rather than dump mercury.

In April, EPA administrator Scott Pruitt proposed to postpone the compliance dates for meeting the new limits on toxic water pollutants from power plants. This rule would have reduced pollutant releases by 1.4bn pounds a year – including chemicals that lead to cancer and other illnesses in humans, lowered IQ in children, and deformities and reproductive damage in fish and wildlife.

The Clean Water Rule was published in June 2015 after years of scientific study, more than 400 public hearings, and literally a million public comments. It provides a critical tool for tackling persistent pollution problems from pesticides, fertilizers and industrial chemicals in water that previously lacked regulations.

Eliminating the Waters of the United States rule was an explicit objective of the Republican platform, and Trump signed an executive order in February 2017 asking the EPA and US Army Corps of Engineers to review and either rescind or revise it. In late June, the EPA announced it would move to completely replace it, removing protections from vast areas of the country.

Finally, Trump’s proposed budget imposes massive cuts to federal water-quality protections. The EPA office that develops standards for pollution in drinking water, already years behind in setting limits for unregulated pollutants, would have its budget cut in half.

The Superfund program, responsible for cleaning up severely polluted industrial sites, including many contaminating or threatening groundwater, would be cut 25% and enforcement would be cut 40%.

Programs that support environmental cleanup in Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay, the Great Lakes, San Francisco Bay, and other waterways would be cut to zero. The EPA’s office for scientific research and development would be cut in half.

Federal grants to states to identify and prevent leaks from underground storage tanks and programs to reduce lead exposure, like that seen recently in Flint, Michigan, would be eliminated. If we do nothing, undrinkable water could be one of Trump’s most poisonous legacies.

The good news is that Americans care enormously about clean water. The annual Gallup Poll on the environment ranks worries about water pollution above any other environmental issue, now higher than they’ve been since 2001. Scientists, public health officials, and environmental groups are also fighting back.

Lawsuits have been filed in federal court arguing that the Trump administration doesn’t have the legal authority to delay these protections, hasn’t given public notice or allowed public debate, is ignoring proven science and has acted to prioritize the interests of the coal and chemical industries over public health.

And there has been some success: in early June, in the face of a lawsuit by the Natural Resources Defense Council, the EPA agreed to let the mercury rule go forward. Some Republican members of Congress have publicly expressed concernover the severity of the proposed federal budget cuts to environmental protection.

We’ve come a long way from the era of unregulated dumping of chemicals in our streams, burning rivers, and dying ecosystems. I’m optimistic that the goal of clean, fishable, swimmable waters nationwide is achievable. But the Republican party is moving rapidly to become the party of dirty water. That’s not in their interest and it’s not in the interest of the nation. It’s time scientists and the public speak out.

Source:  The Guardian.

Pure Water Gazette Fair Use Statement

High Performance Aeration Systems

Pure Water Products now offers a high performance (CAP) air pump and installation kit for our AerMax units.


High capacity air pump for use with AerMax systems.

The high volume pump is a small but tough unit designed for iron and hydrogen sulfide treatment. It is for use with constant pressure well systems, high flow applications, and anywhere higher pressure or higher air turnover is needed. Suggested uses include commercial applications, hotels, restaurants, multi-tap applications, irrigation systems, bottling plants,  large homes,  or wells that serve more than one home.


Installation Kit for High Capacity Air Pump includes 2 stainless steel check valves, heavy duty mounting shell, tube connectors, 200 psi pressure gauge, and pressure regulator.

Prices for pumps and Installation Kit

Part Number Description Price (includes shipping)
AM100 115 V. Heavy Duty Air Pump $489.00
AM101 230 V. Heavy Duty Air Pump $489.00
AM102 Heavy Duty Installation Kit (works with both pumps above) $159.00


Also available are high flow aeration tank heads and over-sized aeration tanks. Please call for information and pricing.

Pure Water Products

940 382 3814