Viqua IHS22-D4

Posted August 28th, 2020

The Viqua IHS22-D4:  The ideal Sediment, Carbon, and UV Unit for Large Homes



The Viqua IHS22-D4. An Ideal Whole Home Treatment 

The IHS22-D4 Unit from Viqua features Viqua’s compact but powerful D4 UV system–twice as strong as it needs to be even at 12 gpm flow rate– plus a 5 micron sediment filter and Viqua’s highly effective carbon block filter for chlorine, general chemicals, lead, and taste/odor improvement.

Features & Specs

Disinfection Flow Rates
30mJ/cm2 12 GPM (45 lpm) (2.7 m3/hr)
40mJ/cm2 9 GPM (34 lpm) (2.0 m3/hr)




Dimensions 25 1/5″ x 12″ x 28″ (64 cm x 30 cm x 70 cm)
Shipping Weight lbs (kg) 35 lbs (15.9 kg)
Connection Size 3/4″ FNPT/MNPT
Power Consumption 50W

This unit is our part #UV894, and the price is $995, shipped free to any lower-48 US address. It is not on our main website, but can be ordered any time by phone: 940 382 3814.  Approximate annual upkeep for filters and UV lamp replacement is $230. Normal lamp replacement interval is one year, and the unit reminds you when it’s time to replace the lamp.

Please see our main website for other Viqua UV units.

Planning and Installing Residential UV Units



The Viqua illustration above shows an ideal UV installation with pretreatment, individual optional by-pass assemblies for the all components, and the UV unit itself. It also shows an optional solenoid and temperature management valve, which would not be needed for most residential installations.


UV always needs at least one pretreatment item, a 5-micron or tighter sediment filter somewhere in front of the UV unit to assure that there are no particles in the water to shade pathogens from the germicidal light.

Additional pretreatment depends on the quality of the water.  Water to be treated should have less than seven grains per gallon hardness, less than 0.3 ppm iron and less than .05 ppm manganese. The carbon filter shown in the diagram is optional and might be included to improve taste, remove extraneous chemicals, remove a small amount of odor, or even to remove chlorine or chloramine if city water is being treated. Carbon will not address iron, manganese, and hardness. The softener in the picture will treat hardness and small amounts of iron and manganese. If iron and manganese are excessive, separate treatment will be needed.

The UV Itself

UV units are sized mainly by gallons per minute treatment capacity. Typical “whole house” residential sizes are 10 to 18 gpm. The UV unit pictured above is a free-standing unit, but systems are also sold that have the sediment and/or carbon stage(s) built on the same frames as the UV chamber. See picture below. Most residential UV units are 115V systems that plug directly into a wall outlet.


The Viqua 12 gpm unit above has sediment filter and lead-removal carbon block built onto the same frame as the UV chamber.

The first step in regulating microplastics in water is defining microplastics


 Microplastics are becoming a persistent water quality problem but they are not currently regulated. Microplastics can enter drinking water supplies through sources like surface runoff, atmospheric deposition and sewer overflows, according to the World Health Organization. The health effects aren’t well understood, but studies have found small plastic particles can migrate from animals’ digestive systems into other organs.


Before a contaminant can be regulated, it must first be defined. California recently approved the nation’s first definition of microplastics. Definition is the first step in requiring local suppliers to test drinking water for small plastic particles that could hurt human health. Other states are expected to take their cue from California.

Although chemical companies lobbied against the definition, the California regulatory board stuck to its original proposed definition:  “solid polymeric materials to which chemical additives or other substances may have been added, which are particles which have at least three dimensions that are greater than 1 nanometer and less than 5,000 micrometers.” The definition excludes naturally derived polymers that haven’t been chemically modified, which can include “bioplastics” made from starch and other biomass.

This probably means that eventually drinking water agencies in California will have to test their supplies for plastic particles smaller than 5 millimeters and report their findings.

Regulation of plastics in water is uncharted territory, but California has now taken the first step.


Article adapted from Debra Kahn, “California becomes first state to define ‘microplastics’ in water.” from June of 2020.   Politico.

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Cattle Found To Be Major Cause Of Water Scarcity

by Peter Chawaga

Gazette Introductory Note: It isn’t uncommon when a “recent scientific analysis” discovers something that has been common knowledge for decades. In this case, what has just been discovered is that raising cattle for food is an environmental disaster. In addition to the twenty-fold waste of water (as compared with direct human consumption of plants), there is an equally significant amount of water pollution that goes with animal agriculture. When your city water supplier puts the familiar list of water saving tips (like, don’t run water continually while you brush your teeth) in with your utility bill, the list almost never includes real water saving tips like “stop eating pigs and cows.”   

Persistent water stress throughout much of the U.S. is linked to multiple causes, including climate change that is warming temperatures and growing populations that put additional strain on available source water. And now, a recent scientific analysis is pointing the finger at another culprit: the cattle industry.

A scientific study published in Nature suggests that cattle are one of the major drivers of water shortages, primarily because of the water required to grow the crops that feed them.

“Across the U.S., cattle-feed crops, which end up as beef and dairy products, account for 23% of all water consumption,” The Guardian reported in a summary of the study. “In the Colorado River Basin, it is over half.”

The Colorado River Basin services some 40 million people in seven states, and is so overdrawn that it rarely reaches the ocean as it once did regularly, per the report. But it is far from alone as a drought-stricken water source in the country. Lake Mead, as another example, hasn’t been full since 1983 and has been reduced by nearly two-thirds over the last 20 years — and almost 75 percent of that decline has been caused by cattle-feed irrigation, the study found.

“It takes a lot of water to make a double-cheeseburger,” according to The Guardian, as it framed the impact in a way many Americans may better understand. “One calculation puts it at 450 gallons per quarter-pounder. The study also found that most of the water-intensive beef and dairy products are being consumed in western cities.”

For those who are concerned about rising source-water scarcity, it’s clear that new solutions and changes to old behavior are needed. The researcher behind the study proposed that leaving farmland idle without irrigation, a practice known as “fallowing,” may be needed.

“[The researcher] noted that the strategy should be temporary and rotational, and that ranchers should be compensated because they lose income growing nothing,” per The Guardian. “Fallowing is at least twice as effective as other water-saving tactics, according to [the] analysis.”

Plant-based meat alternatives may also help with growing source-water scarcity, as consuming less beef and dairy may be the only real solution to this growing stress on the water supply. A meatless Beyond Burger generates 90 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions and has almost no impact on water scarcity, according to the report summary.

To read more about U.S. water supply issues, visit Water Online’s Water Scarcity Solutions Center.


Source: Water Online.

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How Modern Wastewater Treatment Changed our World

Without wastewater treatment, diseases and infections would ravage our society.

by Trevor English


Wastewater treatment is often an overlooked necessity of civilization. Without proper sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants, and overall regulation, our cities would be ripe with disease and human waste everywhere.

Believe it or not, much of the modern wastewater management technology we consider standard in any 21st century home, things like toilets and sewer pipes, are actually relatively new in the grand scheme of history.

The history of wastewater treatment

That’s not to say that sewer systems haven’t been around for ages. After all, the ancient Romans had a complex system of sewers at the peak of their empire. Rather, the knowledge of how poorly managed wastewater can drastically impact the health of society is relatively new.

The Romans had a centralized sewage management system, although it was fairly rudimentary by today’s standards. Open and closed ditches and pipes would carry away excrement and trash, primarily using rainwater runoff. The contaminated water would then flow into large concrete tanks that let the sewage settle out before the water was allowed to flow into the nearby rivers. There was indoor plumbing, and public latrines were also built over the sewers.

COVID-19 from a Water Guy’s Perspective


By Peter S. Cartwright, PE

Gazette Introductory Note: Now that we’re about half a year into the COVID-19 era, we’ve had truckloads of opinions and advice from the experts and the non-experts, the wise and the foolish, the Democrats and the Republicans, the holy and the unholy, the vaxxers and the anti-vaxxers–in short,  from just about everyone. So, the views of a water treatment professional are in order. Below is an article by Mr. Peter Cartwright, a highly respected water treatment veteran. Mr. Cartwright’s article appeared in the July 2020 issue of Water Conditioning and Purification magazine. 


There’s so much we don’t know about the virus behind this pandemic, but we are learning a little more each day. To the microbiologists, this virus is known as SARS-CoV-2, closely related to SARS-CoV-1, the virus that caused the SARS outbreak in 2002-3. Most of the current scientific information and recommendations are based on what we learned in dealing with the SARS virus, but there are significant differences. The normal incubation period is two to 14 days after infection; however, during this time, these people may be contagious without even knowing they are infected.

What are its effects?

In addition to the well-known symptoms of fever, coughing and loss of breath, the CDC has recently added chills, muscle pain, headache, sore throat and loss of taste and/or smell. Additionally, medical personnel are now reporting blood clots and issues with kidneys, heart, intestines, liver and the brain. Doctors also suspect a link between COVID-19 and a rare inflammatory condition, Kawasaki Disease.


So where did this particular virus come from? Virologists estimate that about 1.7 million viruses are lurking on this planet, 75 percent of which are in wildlife. Many of the dangerous ones (SARS, MERS, Ebola, rabies, etc.) have been identified in bats and are readily transmitted to humans, possibly through another vector such as snakes. There is lack of agreement on the specific source of this one.

Is it waterborne?

COVID-19 is spread through respiration from the lungs. Diseases such as salmonellosis and cryptosporidiosis result from eating or drinking but the experts do not feel that COVID-19 can be spread that way. In other words, we catch this disease from inhaling, not from eating or drinking. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued a March 19 Interim Guidance wherein they state: ”Although persistence in drinking water is possible, there is no evidence from surrogate human coronaviruses that they are present in surface or groundwater sources or transmitted through contaminated drinking water. The COVID-19 virus is an enveloped virus, with a fragile outer membrane. Generally, enveloped viruses are less stable in the environment and are more susceptible to oxidants, such as chlorine.”

The virtually ubiquitous practice of chlorinating municipal drinking-water supplies in the US has reinforced the conclusion that this virus will not survive in drinking water. This document goes on to state: “Heat, high or low pH, sunlight, and common disinfectants (such as chlorine) all facilitate die off.” In centralized water treatment applications, WHO specifies a free-chlorine concentration of equal or greater than 0.5 mg/L, at least 30 minutes contact time and pH < 8.0. For non-centralized applications, in addition to chemical treatment (0.5 percent sodium hypochlorite or equivalent disinfectant), they recommend “…boiling or using high-performing ultrafiltration or nanomembrane filters, solar irradiation and, in non-turbid waters, UV irradiation.” Based on this, POU RO technology should be effective. All of these assume careful, hygienic handling practice.

This WHO document also states: “There is no evidence that the COVID-19 virus has been transmitted via sewerage systems with or without wastewater treatment.” As with other pathogenic viruses, it may be present in sewage, but does not appear to present a greater operational hazard to wastewater plant workers wearing the necessary protective equipment.

So how is it spread?

The bad news is that the COVID-19 virus appears to be transmitted through the air in tiny droplets, typically larger than 5µ. Although the virus itself is extremely small, measuring about 0.1µ, it is readily carried in respiratory droplets. When someone coughs or sneezes, huge quantities of droplets are released. What may not be so obvious is that we spray droplets even by talking (also breathing?). These droplets may be suspended for a long time (hours?) and travel significant distances by air movement. The six-foot rule is just an educated guess and some experts feel it should be much farther, perhaps up to 12 feet.

This underscores the value of face masks. It is suggested that N95 masks be reserved for medical and other personnel in direct contact with infected people. This is good advice, as these masks are manufactured to ensure filtration of at least 95 percent of particles as small as 0.3 microns. The good news is that most droplets containing the virus are much larger than this and, depending on the particular face-mask construction, should be effective at removing these droplets. Even home-made masks constructed from old T-shirts or other cloth will help prevent the wearer from infecting people nearby.

The second pathway of COVID-19 exposure is from surfaces. Experts estimate that the virus is infectious for as much as three hours in droplets, four hours on copper surfaces, 24 hours on cardboard and three days on plastic or stainless steel. Note the antimicrobial credit given to copper, which also includes brass. It also appears to be able to survive on the soles of shoes for up to five days. The SARS-CoV-2 virus will not survive for any length of time outdoors, thanks to the excellent disinfecting properties of UV radiation from sunlight. It appears that UV radiation in the 200 to 222-nm wavelength will effectively inactivate (kill) the virus without harm to human skin. It is also readily inactivated by wiping surfaces with bleach solutions (four teaspoons per one quart of water).

The virus can readily enter the body through mucous membranes around the eyes, nose and throat. It is critically important that we keep the virus particles off our hands (which is why we are inundated with advice regarding hand-washing) and to avoid touching your face. If you think of this virus as sitting on everything you touch, that should be motivation to constantly wash. The experts tell us that the optimum procedure is with soap and water (for 20 seconds) and that hand sanitizer (minimum alcohol concentration of 60 percent) should be used only if soap and water are not available.

Facts and fallacies

As with anything so dominant in the news and on social media today, there is a plethora of misinformation circulating. The list below presents some of these along with the truth as provided by respectable authorities.

  • The virus that causes COVID-19 is more deadly than any other pathogen. The data so far indicate the fatality rate at one to three percent; SARS was 11 percent and MERS was 34 percent.
  • Getting COVID-19 is a death sentence. 80 percent of those infected have mild symptoms and get well.
  • This disease is less deadly than the flu. COVID-19 appears to be more deadly than the seasonal flu.
  • The virus that causes COVID-19 is the most infectious pathogen. Pathogens that cause measles, polio, diphtheria and whooping cough are more contagious.
  • Pneumonia and flu vaccinations will protect you from COVID-19. No, they won’t.
  • Antibiotics will work. These are only for bacterial infections and will not work on viruses.
  • Sipping water every 15 minutes will prevent infection. Absolutely will not work.
  • Taking garlic, ibuprofen, echinacea, vitamin C, zinc, elderberry juice, green tea, steroids and other home remedies. There is no evidence that any of these will prevent infection or lessen the symptoms.
  • Hand dryers will kill this virus. No.
  • Either cold or hot weather will kill it. No evidence to support this.
  • Hot baths will prevent infection. No.
  • It can be transmitted through mosquito bites. No evidence to support this.
  • If you cannot hold your breath for 10 seconds without coughing, you have COVID-19. This is not true.
  • Wash your hands with antibacterial soap. While hand washing with soap is absolutely the best way to remove the virus from your skin, the antibacterial ingredient is considered ineffective and is actually a significant pollutant in water supplies.

And the future?

Unfortunately, without much more testing, it will be virtually impossible for the experts to gain the critical knowledge necessary to trace this pandemic and make informed decisions about when and how we can return to some semblance of normalcy. Will recovered patients be immune to reinfection? For how long? Will blood plasma containing antibodies from these people help those with COVID-19 disease recover more quickly? When flu season comes this fall, will COVID-19 come back with a vengeance? Unanswered questions.

At the time of this writing, there is an antiviral drug, Remdesivir, which has shown promise in small studies and has been approved for treatment in hospital settings. Another one, Leronlimab also appears promising in limited trials. Meanwhile, there are at least 70 drugs under development globally, including vaccines from Oxford University and China, as well as those under development by Bointech/Pfizer and Moderna. In the meantime, we owe it to ourselves and loved ones to maintain a healthy lifestyle and outlook, both physically and mentally. The byword today is stay safe—we will get through this if we all work together!

Source: Water Conditioning & Purification.

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NM funds PFAS studies while cleanup languishes and regulations remain years out

Laura Paskus

July 14, 2020

Gazette Introductory Note: This article from New Mexico National Public Radio provides an excellent overview of the history of PFAS contamination and underlines the many difficulties that stand in the way of cleanup. It offers yet another example of the US military’s role as an irresponsible polluter of the nation’s water and of the shortcomings of highly politicized governmental regulatory agencies.

While New Mexico’s lawmakers stare down a $2 billion budget shortfall and a recession, state taxpayers are shelling out $1.1 million to study groundwater contamination from Cannon Air Force Base. That’s in addition to money New Mexico is spending on three pending lawsuits with the U.S. Department of Defense over PFAS contamination at Cannon and also Holloman Air Force Base.

“The [cleanup] progress would be more quick, and we would have more resources devoted to the problem if the responsible party would do the right thing: delineate the contamination and clean it up without us—the regulatory agency—scouring for the resources to do something that the DOD is responsible for doing,” says Stephanie Stringer, the New Mexico Environment Department’s Resource Protection Division Director.

If the military were involved, she says, “There would be a more cohesive and comprehensive effort toward final cleanup.”

PFAS, or per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances, are found in firefighting foams the military started using in the 1970s.

In 2018, monitoring wells near Cannon and Holloman Air Force bases revealed perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) contamination from those foams at levels from hundreds to thousands of times more than a federal lifetime advisory says is safe.

In Clovis, PFAS contamination has also been found in off-base wells, including those that supply water to dairies and the city’s drinking water system.

This family of thousands of chemicals was invented in the 1930s. They are molecules of joined carbon and fluorine atoms, and they’re incredibly difficult to break. Even though they’re toxic—causing health problems ranging from immune disorders to cancer—they’re useful in products like food wrappers, dental floss, ski wax, and even microwave popcorn bags. PFAS can also be found in weather-proof clothing, fire-retardant furniture, and stain-resistant carpet. Not to mention non-stick cookware.

Instead of tackling the problem—and halting the further spread of PFAS in underground water supplies—the Air Force sued New Mexico when the state tried to force a cleanup under the military’s state hazardous waste permit.

In turn, the state sued the Defense Department, asking a federal judge to compel the Air Force to act on, and fund, cleanup at the two New Mexico bases.

To NMED’s knowledge, the military is not working on cleanup at either of the two bases, says Stringer.

In an email to NMPBS, Sen. Tom Udall wrote that he has been “continually disappointed with the Department of Defense’s slow response and handling of the PFAS situation in New Mexico.”

“The state of New Mexico should not have to shoulder these burdens, and the Department of Defense should be taking proactive steps to delineate the plume, start cleanup, and prevent the plume from spreading and making the situation worse,” according to Udall.

The senator pointed to New Mexico’s “rich tradition of military service” and said the Defense Department “owes it to the state and our communities to take immediate action on this serious problem.”

Udall also noted that under the National Defense Authorization Act Congress passed last year, the PFAS Damages Act authorized the Defense Department to provide fresh water and filtration for agricultural purposes and to buy contaminated land at a fair price from private landowners. It also required the military to submit a cleanup plan.

“It is beyond unacceptable that the DOD has missed the deadlines set out in the legislation despite our delegation’s continued requests,” according to Udall. “I am still extremely disappointed with the slow speed and lack of attention to resolving this matter.”

Staff at Cannon Air Force Base did not respond to NMPBS’s requests for information on cleanup. But Denise Ottaviano, chief of media relations at Holloman Air Force Base answered questions via email, writing that the base is committed to “working with regulators and community leaders.”

“We share concerns about potential PFOS/PFOA contamination of drinking water and we are moving aggressively to protect drinking water supplies affected by our former Air Force activities,” she wrote, adding that the Air Force is “planning additional efforts” consistent with federal law to “define the nature and extent of PFAS impact at Holloman.”

“These future efforts will help determine plume size, direction, and any needed remediation,” she added.

Ottaviano wrote that the contaminated groundwater “does not impact drinking water sources for Holloman AFB or the surrounding community.”

Drinking water is not pumped from beneath the base, according to Ottaviano, but rather comes from well fields 12 to 35 miles southeast of the installation. Those wells continue to be tested, she wrote, and have not been contaminated with PFOS or PFOA.

“It is beyond unacceptable that the DOD has missed the deadlines set out in the legislation despite our delegation’s continued requests,” according to Udall. “I am still extremely disappointed with the slow speed and lack of attention to resolving this matter.”

For now, in addition to fighting the Pentagon in court, New Mexico regulators are trying to divine the extent of the groundwater contamination at Cannon, as well as around the city of Clovis.

This spring, the New Mexico State Legislature allocated $1 million for the agency to work on delineating the PFAS plume—to understand where the contamination is and how it is moving underground—and another $100,000 to create and implement a well testing program in Curry and Roosevelt counties.

In the coming months, the New Mexico Environment Department will start determining which wells should be tested and included within the program.

Precautions due to COVID-19 will make that harder than normal, points out Rebecca Roose, NMED’s Water Protection Division Director.

“You can’t just gather people together in a community center and talk it out,” she says. “We’re going to have to figure out the right balance to make sure the opportunities to learn about and participate in the program aren’t limited by people’s broadband access or having a computer at home.”

Trying to clean up and control PFAS in New Mexico—and across the United States—is complicated by the fact that the regulatory framework has not caught up with what scientists understand about the dangerous environmental and health impacts of PFAS, says Roose.

In the early 1980s, for instance, the company DuPont studied PFOA in its pregnant workers. The company learned then that the toxic chemical crossed the placenta—moving from the mother to her developing baby. In the 1990s, another manufacturer, 3M, told regulators a different chemical in the PFAS family had built up in the blood of people who worked in their plants back in the 1960s.

Since then, chemicals in the PFAS family have been linked to reproductive and developmental problems, liver and kidney disease, and immune system problems. Exposure has also been linked to high cholesterol, low infant birth weights, thyroid hormone disruption. And cancer.

“There’s enough scientific documentation for us to understand the clear and critical health risks of the class of PFAS chemicals,” says Roose. But federal and state regulatory regimes aren’t up to the challenge of controlling their release into the environment—and drinking water.

The key right now, she says, is getting the science right and moving forward with regulations as quickly as possible.

Not only that, she says, the military needs to accept its responsibilities.

“Fewer of our resources at NMED would be directed to the conflict—and the constant struggle with DOD to have them step up and take responsibility for the contamination at Cannon and Holloman,” Roose says. “We wouldn’t have to be devoting so many resources to litigation and we wouldn’t have to be seeking additional resources from the legislature.”

The state of New Mexico, like states across the nation faced with PFAS contamination from military bases, is hamstrung by a lack of regulations for PFAS.

Without a drinking water standard for the chemicals, states, tribes, and local governments can’t hold polluters responsible for contamination and cleanup.

In 2019, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released a PFAS Action Plan, one that would move the agency toward regulating PFOS and PFOA, just two of the roughly 7,000 chemicals in the PFAS family.

Earlier this year, EPA proposed those regulations for public comment.

At that time, the New Mexico Environment Department submitted comments, supporting regulations for PFOS and PFOA, and requesting that the agency add four additional compounds, consider grouping the family of compounds for regulation instead of considering them on an individual basis, and expedite the rule-making process.

But in May, EPA administrator Andrew Wheeler told a senate committee the EPA can’t set a standard within a year, as requested by some Democratic and Republican U.S. senators who pressed the agency to act more quickly.

Even under a best-case scenario, the EPA is likely three to four years away from finalizing the regulatory limits for the two compounds, estimates Roose.

In its comments to the EPA, NMED also implored the agency to set regulations based on the best available science, and not just the health advisory EPA set in 2009 of 70 parts per trillion in drinking water.

The well-documented bioaccumulative effects of the chemicals, according to NMED’s comments, merit standards more closely aligned with those now enacted by some states, including New York, which set drinking water standards for PFAS at 20 parts per trillion.

In response to questions about the plan’s implementation, an EPA spokeswoman emailed text from a news release earlier this year. She also noted that during the public comment period, which ended in June, the agency received more than 11,000 comments on the proposed rule.

Souce: PBS, New Mexico.

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Lead In Well Water

Posted July 7th, 2020

Study: Kids Who Drink Well Water At Higher Risk For Lead Exposure


by Rebecca Thiele

Gazette Introductory Note:  Lead contamination of city water is constantly in the news, but we seldom concern ourselves about lead it well water. Lead in well water comes from the same place as lead in city water: corrosion of pipes and appliances. The piece below should make us consider that wells should be tested routinely for lead and that lead-removing drinking water systems, like reverse osmosis, should be part of every home with well water.


Corrosion control: New pipe on the right, untreated pipe in the center, pipe treated for corrosion control on the left. 

There’s been a big push to reduce lead in drinking water around the country. But few of those efforts have been focused on private wells — where about a quarter of all Hoosiers get their water.

new study shows kids who drink well water are more likely to get exposed to lead. Children in North Carolina whose homes had private wells were about 25 percent more likely to have high levels of lead in their blood than those who had city water.

Jackie MacDonald Gibson co-authored the study and chairs the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health at Indiana University.

“Most people who get their water from a private well don’t test their water quality on a regular basis — and so they may be drinking contaminated water and not even be aware of it,” she said.

Gibson said some well owners may not be able to afford a test or upgrades to their water system. Like public water systems, the study said a lot of lead contamination comes from lead pipes and a lack of corrosion control.

Because rural areas tend to rely on private wells, she said kids in those areas tend to be at a higher risk for lead exposure. But the study also showed there was a higher risk for children who were Black, low-income, or lived just outside city limits.

Garry Holland is the education chair for the Indianapolis branch of the NAACP — which has been advocating for state laws to address lead in drinking water. He said gentrification has pushed more African American families outside the Indianapolis city limits.

“When you look at the outskirts in any city, one has to begin the planning or research to see what industrial complexes were out in those areas that may have dumped contamination into the soil,” Holland said.

Kids with lead poisoning can have trouble learning, behavioral issues, and poor kidney function. Holland said no matter if the water comes from a private well or a city water system — Indiana needs to do a better job to protect its children.

Among other things, the study said there should be more federal funding to help well owners and laws to ensure all new wells are lead free.


Source: WFYI (Indiana Public Radio)

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Also see The Guardian.

Utah sewage study detects high concentrations of novel coronavirus in large cities, areas with outbreaks


Gazette Introductory Note: We should underline that detecting virus in wastewater does not mean that there is viral contamination of drinking water. Note that “the virus in its flushed form is no longer alive,” and “the virus was not found in water leaving sewage treatment plants but in water entering all 10 sewage plants.” 


Wastewater Treatment Tanks

Testing for virus in wastewater plants could be a valuable health management tool.

 SALT LAKE CITY — Utah scientists say sewage could provide a tool for ongoing monitoring and early detection of the novel coronavirus in communities after they found high concentrations of the the virus in areas with outbreaks.

The information could be useful for state officials as infection numbers keep climbing.

Researchers hoped to discover whether waste that gets flushed down the toilet could help Utah get a more localized picture of infection rates. In March, as part of a pilot study, they began testing samples of untreated wastewater for the presence of COVID-19 gene copies in 10 treatment plants across the Beehive State representing about 40% of Utah’s population.

“The initial results show that we can not only detect the virus in sewage, but we can see trends that are broadly consistent with known infection rates in Utah’s communities,” Erica Gaddis, director of the Utah Division of Water Quality, said in a statement.

“Monitoring virus in Utah’s sewage systems offers a tool for early detection of rising infections, monitoring community infection trends and confirmation of low infection rates. We hope that monitoring the sewage can help in prioritizing limited state resources such as mobile testing,” Gaddis said.

The virus in its flushed form is no longer alive, but copies of its genetic material get left behind. Officials say that even those with asymptomatic infections shed the virus in their feces.

Plant operators voluntarily collected samples at the inlets of their sewage treatment plants beginning in mid-April through the end of May. Researchers estimated viral concentration per 100,000 people.

The virus was not found in water leaving sewage treatment plants but in water entering all 10 sewage plants, officials said, with 64% of the 171 collected samples containing it.

In late May, when Cache County reported an outbreak at a Hyrum meat packaging facility that led to a sharp increase in cases, the Logan and Hyrum sewage plants also saw large increases of the virus in water samples.

But highest viral concentrations were detected in larger cities, researchers said, especially tourist communities.

Utah is now “committed to expanding and operationalizing this tool in the ongoing response to the COVID-19 pandemic,” officials said.

Article Source: Deseret News.

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Are You Eating PFAS?

Posted June 8th, 2020

PFAS present throughout the Yadkin-Pee Dee river food chain

Researchers have found per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in every step of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River food chain, even though the river does not have a known industrial input of these compounds.

Gazette’s Introductory Note: This North Carolina State University research adds a new dimension to PFAS contamination of the environment. You can protect yourself from PFAS in drinking water with a home reverse osmosis unit, but it may be harder to avoid PFAS-contaminated foods. The ubiquitousness of PFAS especially brings into question the wisdom of the recent administration rejection of proposed EPA rules designed to limit PFAS content of imported goods.



Researchers from North Carolina State University have found per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in every step of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River food chain, even though the river does not have a known industrial input of these compounds. The study examined the entire aquatic ecosystem for PFAS compounds and identified strong links between ecosystem groups that lead to biomagnification, the process that leads to greater concentrations of these substances in animals that sit higher on the food chain — including humans.

PFAS compounds were engineered to resist friction and heat, and are in many products that we use daily, from furniture to meat packaging. However, it is this “slippery” characteristic that makes them persist in ecosystems and poses a risk to our health.

“These compounds are engineered to be persistent on purpose; this is how they keep stains off your couch and eggs from sticking to your frying pan,” says Tom Kwak, unit leader of NC Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, professor of applied ecology at NC State, and a co-author of the study. “We pay the price for these compounds when they enter the aquatic ecosystem.”

In a study measuring real-time PFAS contamination levels along the entire food chain of this major Atlantic river — from water and sediment to insects and fish — the researchers identified two PFAS hot spots along the Pee Dee and were able to establish strong links of PFAS transmission up the aquatic food chain.

The research team collected water, sediment, algae, plant, insect, fish, crayfish, and mollusk samples at five study sites along the length of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River, which begins in Blowing Rock, N.C., and runs 230 miles to empty into the Atlantic Ocean at Winyah Bay, South Carolina. They analyzed the samples for 14 different PFAS compounds.

While nearly every sample contained PFAS compounds, the site with the greatest PFAS concentrations was just downstream of the Rocky River input, which drains part of the watershed from Charlotte, N.C. and the surrounding area. The site with the second greatest PFAS concentrations was downstream in South Carolina, but there is no known or plausible input of PFAS for that region.

In aquatic food chains, biofilm — the soupy mixture of algae and bacteria that sticks to your boat — is the base resource for all life further up the chain. In this study, the largest concentrations of 10 of the 14 PFAS compounds measured were in biofilm samples. Unsurprisingly, aquatic insects, which primarily eat biofilm, had the greatest accumulation of PFAS compounds of all the living taxa the researchers sampled. This confirms a strong trophic link, or step in the food chain, showing how PFAS transfers from biofilm to insects, which are then eaten by freshwater fish.

When PFAS is in every step of the food chain, the compounds accumulate at each step. For example, a fish caught in an area with PFAS may have eaten hundreds of insects, each of which has consumed contaminated biofilm and other plants.

“We are part of the food chain and when we ingest these foods, we accumulate their PFAS loads, too,” says Greg Cope, William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professor of Applied Ecology, coordinator of the NC State Agromedicine Institute, and corresponding author of the study. “This gives new meaning to the phrase, ‘You are what you eat.'”


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